Climat et Impacts 2020
!!!!! A SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM IN 9 SESSIONS !!!!!
The scientific program of the Climate and Impacts Days is being finalized. It has been drawn up on the basis of your session proposals. The days will be based on 9 sessions with the following titles and/or key words.
The call for abstracts and registration are open until October 23rd
registration form and abstract template are available here
Alizée CHEMISON, Camille BESOMBES, Gilles RAMSTEIN, Cyril CAMINADE
Global warming can have direct impacts on human and animal health, particularly through induced stresses on the environment and extreme weather events (floods, heat waves, tropical cyclones). Climate change can also have indirect effects on biological systems such as vector-borne diseases (malaria, arboviruses, Lyme disease, parasitic worms affecting livestock etc) or water-borne diseases (cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever etc). Climate also indirectly impacts respiratory diseases such as the transmission of seasonal influenza. The influence of climate seasonality on the coronavirus pandemic, and on a potential second epidemic wave during the upcoming winter-spring season, is currently hotly debated in the scientific community. This session will present recent multidisciplinary research findings on climate and health.
François DJINDJIAN, Marie-Hélène MONCEL, Pascal DEPAEPE, Jean-François PASTRE
The objective of this session is to present the results of studies on the climate change adaptation of hunter-gatherer populations during the Pleistocene and early Holocene and of farmer/pastoralist populations during the Holocene.
This session is open to all papers on this topic and includes contributions on the first results of a project launched in 2018 by the International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, with the support of the International Academic Union: "Humanity facing climate change in prehistory: adaptation and sustainable development, from the origins to early historical times".
For the Pleistocene and early Holocene, alternating glacial and interglacial periods, data accumulated over more than 150 years of archaeological research, allow to study the systemic adaptation of prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies to these long-term climate changes : territories of travels of human groups, food resources management along the year, raw materials supplies, manufacturing processes, material cultures, functions of cave and mobile art, funeral rites, mobility and contacts of human groups, zoocenosis changes, animal species extinction, colonization and abandonment of territories, straits crossing, physical and paleo-genetic anthropology of populations, population estimates. For the Holocene, the emergence in different places and times, of farmers/breeders societies allows to highlight the transition conditions and processes, the slow but progressive anthropization of the landscape, the adaptation to the Holocene climatic variations (cold and dry episode of 8,200 BP, return of aridity after the beginning of a humid Holocene) leading to migrations, agropastoral changes and to irrigation infrastructures building, at the origin of both society' collapses and rapid developments.....
Annachiara BARTOLINI, Guillaume LEHIR, Guillaume PARIS, Pierre SÉPULCHRE
Biogeochemical cycles help control climate and paleoenvironments throughout the Earth's history. In particular, the carbon cycle controls the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, through the production and sedimentation of organic matter (OM) and the coupling between weathering and carbonate precipitation-sedimentation. Other elements play a central role in the control of atmospheric pCO2 through their interactions with the carbon cycle, e.g. oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, iron. Tectonics and geodynamics also come into play, influencing mantle carbon emissions, oceanic and atmospheric circulations, and the configuration and thus the weathering of continental surfaces.
While biological activity influences the climate, the climate also has an impact on living organisms, in particular on macro-evolutionary processes, and ultimately on biodiversity. Climatic variations, whether induced by paleogeographic changes (over-extension, continental splits), variations in greenhouse gases or orbital forcings, are all environmental pressures influencing the phenomena of dispersion, diversification and extinction, whether they are abrupt (e.g. biological crisis) or take place over the long term (e.g. "greenhouse" world - "igloo" world transition).
In this session, we welcome all studies dealing with long and short time scale interactions between biogeochemical cycles, tectonics in the broad sense and the biosphere and climate during the pre-Quaternary Earth history.
Frédéric BOUCHARD, Antoine SÉJOURNÉ, François COSTARD, Olivier MOINE, Pierre ANTOINE, Claude HILLAIRE-MARCEL, Anne de VERNAL
The cryosphere, which includes permafrost, land ice and sea ice, is an important component of the Earth’s system that is directly impacted by the ongoing global warming. For example, numerous impacts of permafrost degradation in response to current climate change (e.g., sediment and water transfers, landscape erosion, release of organic matter in the form of greenhouse gases) are widespread and observable today on natural and human-impacted ecosystems. During the Quaternary, continental mid-latitudes underwent extensive phases of growth and retreat of both glaciers and permafrost at the scale of glacial-interglacial cycles, especially during the last 400 ka. Moreover, glacial and periglacial environments were also affected by important short-termed surficial thawing and erosion events during short (millennial) interstadial phases. Furthermore, Arctic sea ice that may record large variations in extent plays an important role in climate through albedo effect, freshwater budget and exchanges of heat and gases (e.g., CO2) between the ocean and atmosphere. These three types of climatic and environmental variabilities related to the cryosphere can be tracked using paleoenvironmental approaches and correlated with paleoclimate changes. They could have had an impact on Paleolithic peopling, notably during the Last Glacial. This session aims at bringing together studies of past and present permafrost land ice and sea ice dynamics, both at the local and hemispheric scale. We welcome contributions from field-based studies as well as analytical, dating or modelling advances across high-latitude and high-altitude regions.
Eric GUILYARDI, Simon KLEIN, Lydie LESCARMONTIER, Mathilde TRICOIRE, David WILGENBUS
The question of climate change is now reaching out far beyond the academic sphere. Climate communication and education are crucial issues for engaging society in understanding current and future climate change and its impact on the planet.
Numerous actors contribute to this interface that is the mediation between climate sciences and society, whether in formal education - from primary to higher education -, informal education - museums, leisure centres -, or even the media for the general public - youth press, podcasts, videos -.
In this landscape of actors and initiatives, the target audiences, the pedagogical tools, the role of scientists, educators and mediators are all dimensions to be considered in order to build a common vision of mediation and education in climate sciences.
This session aims at illustrating the practices and uses diversity while discussing the place of researchers in that matter of climate communication. It invites papers dealing with climate change education, mediation or communication, as well as research in educational science, in France or abroad.
A round table will complete the session.
Maria Gracia BUSTAMANTE ROSELL, Frédérique EYNAUD, Meryem MOJTAHID, Sophie SÉPULCRE
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) plays a fundamental role in the redistribution of heat, nutrients and salt across the global ocean, thus exerting a major influence on climate regulation. Most paleoceanographic work in recent decades has documented the variations in AMOC dynamics (both at depth -North Atlantic Deep Water - NADW, and at the surface - subpolar and subtropical gyres and North Atlantic Drift) as well as the very close connection with atmospheric modes of functioning (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation) associated to all time scales.
Important changes in dynamic modes and ocean-atmosphere coupling, also involving ice-sheet dynamics, have been particularly highlighted during the abrupt climate events and shifts of the last Quaternary climate cycles. Understanding the causes and consequences, as well as the internal structure of these abrupt events, could be of great help to models in anticipating future climate change.
This session will be dedicated to work that will allow to better document the variations in oceanic and climatic dynamics in the Atlantic basin, particularly in relation to inter and intra-hemispheric teleconnections and exchanges. It will focus on studies aiming at better understanding the relationships between climate, ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere, both through sedimentary records (naturalist approach) and through modelling (numerical approach).
Charlotte SKONIECZNY, Thibaut CALEY, Aline GOVIN, Marie REVEL, Mary ELLIOT
On Earth, low-latitude regions (40°N-40°S) play a key role in the transfer of heat to higher latitudes via oceanic and atmospheric circulations, thus impacting global climate (regional to global) dynamic on different time scales (seasonal, inter annual, millennial...).
This session aims at documenting the climatic variability of low latitudes in order to provide insights into climate forcings at the Quaternary scale. It will also aim at understanding the climate variability impacts on the environment and on human populations/occupations as well as the interactions between the different climate system reservoirs at low latitudes. This session will focus on both intertropical convergence zone and monsoon mechanisms (Indian, Asian, African, South American) and on tropical phenomena such as the Indian Ocean dipole or El Niño- Southern Oscillation, and this at the different space-time scales of the Quaternary, based on climatic, archaeological, and/or numerical simulations archives.
Yves LEVI, Christelle MARLIN
Climate change impact on surface and groundwater resources requires separate studies on the influence of the climate in one way and of the pressures induced by human activities on the other one. In a context of energy and environmental transitions and of growing demographic pressure, water resources are at the forefront of the debate on the climate change consequences for mankind and his environment. Beyond the complexity of climate models and their associated parameters leading to multiple trajectories, models' uncertainties to produce reliable scenarios of the water resources state are not only associated to the small number of long data series but also to the uncertainties of the socio-economic data needed to build trajectories of possible futures. The objective of this session is to exchange on:
- the certainties and uncertainties for the geographical areas and the periods for which excesses or deficits of precipitation are or will be notable: models and scenarios, past trends and projections (this point conditions a great deal of the following topics) ;
- anthropogenic versus climatic factors on the dynamics and status of surface and groundwater resources (past, present and future) ;
- the necessary changes in water use: consumption versus reserves, changes in practices, conflicts of use, ... ;
- foreseeable changes in water quality, pollution levels and sources (low and high water levels) and associated environmental and health risks;
- will the relationship to water be changed?: sociology, water in the city, water and leisure, … ...
A session for all communications, both oral and in poster form, which hesitate between several sessions or do not find a place in the proposed sessions and which, in essence, greatly contribute to the diversity of the Climate and Impacts 2020 days.