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James Orr

Climat et Cycles - Modélisation de leurs variabilités et de leurs interactions

Calcul Scientifique

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Directeur de Recherche CEA, LSCE/CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, IPSL, Université Paris Saclay


My research largely focuses on how the ocean has changed since the onset of the industrial revoultion due to our emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere and how those changes may well worsen in coming decades and beyond. My interests include the transfer of carbon to the ocean from the atmosphere and land, and the impacts from the associated general increase in ocean carbon storage, often referred to as ocean acidification. My interests include long-term changes (over decades and longer) as well as short-term variability (daily, seasonal, and interannual) and extreme events. To address these concerns, I exploit ocean models constrained by observations to simulate ocean biogeochemistry and its coupling with ocean circulation, often in the framework of  earth system models which simultaneously simulate the major components of the climate system (atmosphere, ocean, ice) and the carbon cycle on land, in the ocean, and in the atmosphere. To help improve these complex yet fundamental tools,  much effort is also focused on model evaluation and comparison.



Ph.D., Oceanography, Texas A&M University 1988
B.S., Chemistry, Mathematics Minor, Central Washington University 1978


Group Leader, Calculs Scientifiques, LSCE/CEA, since 2013
Director of Research, LSCE/CEA, ocean carbon cycle and ocean acidification, since 2010
Research Scientist, MEL/IAEA, Monaco (3-year secondment from LSCE), 2006–2009
Participating Guest Scientist, LLNL/DOE, Livermore, California, 2002
Research Scientist, LSCE/CEA,  1993–2010
Visiting Scientist, LSCE, 1992–1993
Research Scientist, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, 1988–1992

International Commitees

Chair, International SOLAS-IMBER Ocean Acidification Task Team (working group), since 2012

Scientific Coordinator, Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre, Monaco, 2013-2016

Member, International SOLAS-IMBER Ocean Acidification Task Team, 2009-2012

Chair, Scientific Planning Committee for the 2nd International Symposium on The Ocean in a High CO2 World, Monaco October 6–8, 2008

Vice-Chair, Planning Committee for international symposium on “The Ocean in a High CO2 World” at UNESCO (Paris), May 10–12, 2004

Chair, Working Group on Direct effects of anthropogenic CO2 on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems, IGBP/OCEANS International Open Science Conf., 2003




Kwiatkowski, L. and J. C. Orr.: Diverging seasonal extremes in ocean acidification, Nature Clim. Change, 8, 2, 141-145, 2018.

Richon, C., Dutay, J.-C., Bopp, L., Le Vu, B., Orr, J. C., Somot, S., and Dulac, F.: Biogeochemical response of the Mediterranean Sea to the transient SRES–A2 climate change scenario, Biogeosciences Discuss.,, in review, 2018.

Terhaar, J., Orr, J. C., Gehlen, M., Ethé, C., and Bopp, L.: Model constraints on the anthropogenic carbon budget of the Arctic Ocean, Biogeosciences Discuss.,, in review, 2018.


Orr, J. C., Najjar, R. G., Aumount, O., Bopp, L., Bullister, J. L., Danabasoglu, G., Doney, S. C., Dunne, J. P., Dutay, J.-C., Graven, H., Griffies, S. M., John, J. G., Joos, F., Levin, I., Lindsay, K., Matear, R. J., McKinley, G. A., Mouchet, A., Oschlies, A., Romanou, A., Schlitzer, R., Tagliabue, A., Tanhua, T., and Yool, A.: Biogeochemical protocols and diagnostics for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169-2199,, 2017.


Bourgeois, T., Orr, J. C., Resplandy, L., Terhaar, J., Ethé, C., Gehlen, M., and Bopp, L.: Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon, Biogeosciences, 13, 4167-4185, doi:10.5194/bg-13-4167-2016, 2016.

Griffies, S. M., Danabasoglu, G., Durack, P. J., Adcroft, A. J., Balaji, V., Böning, C. W., Chassignet, E. P., Curchitser, E., Deshayes, J., Drange, H., Fox-Kemper, B., Gleckler, P. J., Gregory, J. M., Haak, H., Hallberg, R. W., Heimbach, P., Hewitt, H. T., Holland, D. M., Ilyina, T., Jungclaus, J. H., Komuro, Y., Krasting, J. P., Large, W. G., Marsland, S. J., Masina, S., McDougall, T. J., Nurser, A. J. G., Orr, J. C., Pirani, A., Qiao, F., Stouffer, R. J., Taylor, K. E., Treguier, A. M., Tsujino, H., Uotila, P., Valdivieso, M., Wang, Q., Winton, M., and Yeager, S. G.: OMIP contribution to CMIP6: experimental and diagnostic protocol for the physical component of the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3231-3296, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3231-2016, 2016.

Séférian, R., Gehlen, M., Bopp, L., Resplandy, L., Orr, J. C., Marti, O., Dunne, J. P., Christian, J. R., Doney, S. C., Ilyina, T., Lindsay, K., Halloran, P. R., Heinze, C., Segschneider, J., Tjiputra, J., Aumont, O., and Romanou, A.: Inconsistent strategies to spin up models in CMIP5: implications for ocean biogeochemical model performance assessment, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1827-1851, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-1827-2016, 2016.


Orr, J. C. and Epitalon, J.-M.: Improved routines to model the ocean carbonate system: mocsy 2.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 485-499, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-485-2015, 2015.

Orr, J. C., Epitalon, J.-M., and Gattuso, J.-P.: Comparison of ten packages that compute ocean carbonate chemistry, Biogeosciences, 12, 1483-1510, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1483-2015, 2015.

Palmiéri, J., Orr, J. C., Dutay, J.-C., Béranger, K., Schneider, A., Beuvier, J., and Somot, S.: Simulated anthropogenic CO2 storage and acidification of the Mediterranean Sea, Biogeosciences, 12, 781-802, doi:10.5194/bg-12-781-2015, 2015.

Tanhua, T., Orr, J. C., Lorenzoni, L., and Hansson, L.: Monitoring Ocean Carbon and Ocean Acidification. WMO Bulletin, 64(1), 2015.


Gehlen, M., Séférian, R., Jones, D. O. B., Roy, T., Roth, R., Barry, J., Bopp, L., Doney, S. C., Dunne, J. P., Heinze, C., Joos, F., Orr, J. C., Resplandy, L., Segschneider, J., and Tjiputra, J.: Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk, Biogeosciences, 11, 6955-6967,, 2014.

Hilmi, N., Allemand, D., Cinar, M., Cooley, S., Hall-Spencer, J. M., Haraldsson, G., .Hattam, C, Jeffree, R. A., Orr, J.C., Rehdanz, K., Reynaud, S. Safa, A.,  & Dupont, S. (2014). Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification. Water, 6 (6), 1719-1744.


Bopp, L., L. Resplandy, J. C. Orr}, S. C. Doney, J. P. Dunne, M. Gehlen, P. Halloran, C. Heinze, T. Ilyina, R. Seferian, J. Tjiputra, M. Vichi (2013) Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models, Biogeosciences, 10, 6225-6245,, 2013.

Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell, A. Chhabra, R. DeFries, J. Galloway, M. Heimann, C. Jones , C. Le Quéré, R. Myneni, S. Piao, P. Thornton (Contributing authors: J. C. Orr et al.). The Physical Science Basis, Chapter 6: Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles, in IPCC WG1 Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), https://www.ipccwg1., 2013.

Cocco, V., Joos, F., Steinacher, M., Frölicher, T. L., Bopp, L., Dunne, J., Gehlen, M., Heinze, C., Orr, J., Oschlies, A., Schneider, B., Segschneider, J., and Tjiputra, J. (2013) Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections, Biogeosciences, 10, 1849-1868, doi:10.5194/bg-10-1849-2013, 2013. 

Dufour, C. O., J. Le Sommer,M. Gehlen, J. C. Orr, J.-M. Molines, J. Simeon, and B. Barnier (2013), Eddy compensation and controls of the enhanced sea-to-air CO2 flux during positive phases of the Southern Annular Mode, Global Biogeochem.  Cycles, 27, doi:10.1002/gbc.20090.

Keller, K. M., F. Joos, C.  C. Raible, V. Cocco, T. L. Frölicher, J. P. Dunne, M.  Gehlen, L. Bopp, J. C. Orr, J. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, T. Roy, N. Metzl (2013) Variability of the ocean carbon cycle in response to the North Atlantic Oscillation, Tellus B, 64, 18738,

Resplandy, L., L. Bopp, J. C. Orr, and J. P. Dunne. Role of mode and intermediate waters in future ocean acidification: analysis of CMIP5 models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 3091-3095 doi:10.1002/grl.50414, 2013.

Rhein, M., S. R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R. Feely, S. Gulev, G. C. Johnson, S. A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, C. Mauritzen, D. Roemmich, L. Talley, F. Wang (Contributing authors: J. C. Orr et al.). The Physical Science Basis, Chapter 3: Observations: Ocean, in IPCC WG1 Fifth Assessment Report (AR5),,  2013.

Ricke, K.L., J.C. Orr, K. Schneider, and K. Caldeira (2013) Risks to coral reefs from ocean carbonate chemistry changes in recent earth system model projections. Environ. Res. Lett. 8, 034003, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034003.

Zika, J. D., J. Le Sommer, C. O. Dufour, J.-M. Molines, B. Barnier, P. Brasseur, R. Dussin, T. Penduff, D. Iudicone, A. Lenton, G. Madec, P. Mathiot, J. C. Orr, E. Shuckburgh, F. Vivier (2013) Vertical Eddy Fluxes in the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 941-955.  doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0178.1


Comeau, S., J.P.  Gattuso, A. M. Nisumaa, and J. C. Orr , Impact of aragonite saturation state changes on migratory pteropods, Proc. Roy. Soc. B,, 279 (1729), 732-738, 2012.

Dufour, C. O., J. Le Sommer, J.D. Zika, M. Gehlen, J.C.  Orr, and P. Mathiot, Intensitifcation of an eddying Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning due to the Southern Annular Mode, J. Clim., 25 (20), 6958-6974, 2012.

Hansson, L., J. Bijma, J. C. Orr, U. Riebesell, C. Turley, End of first international largescale research project on ocean acidification, GeoQ Newsletter, 3, 2932, 2012.

Hilmi, N., D. Allemand, S. Dupont, A. Safa, G. Haraldsson, P. Nunes, C. Moore, C. Hattam, S. Reynaud, J. M. HallSpencer, M. Fine, C. Turley, R. Jeffree, J. C. Orr, P. L.  Munday, S. R. Cooley, Towards improved socioeconomic assessments of ocean acidification impacts, Mar. Biol., 115, doi:10.1007/s0022701220315, 2012.

Séférian, R., L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, J. C. Orr, C. Ethé, P. Cadule, O. Aumont, D. SalasyMélia, A. Voldoire, G. Madec, Skill assessment of three Earth System Models with common marine biogeochemistry, Clim. Dyn.,, 125,  doi:10.1007/s0038201213628, 2012.


Ganachaud,A., A. Sen Gupta, J.C. Orr, S.Wijffels, K. Ridgway, M. Hemer, C. Maes, C. Steinberg, A. Tribollet, B. Qiu, J. Kruger, Observed and Expected Changes to the Pacific Ocean. In: Vulnerability of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Pacific to Climate Change, (J.D. Bell, ed.). Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia, 2011.

Orr, J.C., Recent and future changes in ocean carbonate chemistry, in Ocean Acidification (J.P.  Gattuso et L. Hansson, eds.), pp. 41-66, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011.


Nisumaa, A. M., S. Pesant, R. G. J. Bellerby, B. Delille, J.  J. Middelburg, J. C. Orr, U. Riebesell, T. Tyrrell, D. WolfGladrow, and J.P.  Gattuso, EPOCA/EUROCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification, Earth Sys. Sci. Data, 2, 167-175, 2010.

Tittensor, D. P., A. R. Baco, J. M. HallSpencer, J. C. Orr, and A. D. Rogers, Seamounts as refugia from ocean acidification for coldwater stony corals, Marine Ecology, 31, 212–225, 2010.


Bijma, J. , Barange, M. , Brander, L. , Cardew, G. , de Leeuw, J. W. , Feely, R. , Fernand, R. , Ganssen, G. , Gattuso, J. P. , Ganzalez Davila, M. , Haugan, P. , Held, H. , Hood, M. , Kiefer, T. , Kozyr, A. , Orr, J. , Pörtner, H. O. , Rehdanz, K. , Reichart, G. J. , Rodhouse, P. , Schmidt, F. , Thorndyke, M. , Turley, C. , Urban, E. , Ziveri, P. , Lipiatou, E. , Avril, B. and Turk, D.: Impacts of ocean acidification , ESF Science Policy Briefing, 37 , pp. 1-12, 2009 .

Cao, L., M. Eby, A. Ridgwell, K. Caldeira, D. Archer, A. Ishida, F. Joos, K. Matsumoto, U. Mikolajewicz, A.  Mouchet, J. C. Orr, G.K.  Plattner, R. Schlitzer, K. Tokos, I. Totterdell, T. Tschumi, Y. Yamanaka, and A. Yool, The role of ocean transport in the fate of anthropogenic CO2, Biogeosciences, 6, 375390, 2009.

Fautin, D. G., J. M. Guinotte, J. C. Orr, Comparative depth distribution of corallimorpharians and scleractinians (Cnidaria: Anthozoa), Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 397, 6370, 2009.

Feely, R. A., J. C. Orr, V. J. Fabry, J. A. Kleypas, C. L. Sabine, and C. Langdon (2009), Present and future changes in seawater chemistry due to ocean acidification, in Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle, Geophys.  Monogr. Ser., vol. 183 (B. J. McPherson and E. T.  Sundquist, eds.), pp. 175–188, AGU, Washington, D. C., doi:10.1029/2005GM000337.

Lachkar, Z., J. C. Orr, J.C.  Dutay, P. Delecluse. On the role of mesoscale eddies in the ventilation of Antarctic Intermediate Water, Deep-Sea Res. I, 56, 909925, 2009.

Lachkar, Z., J. C. Orr, and J.C.  Dutay. Seasonal and mesoscale variability of oceanic transport of anthropogenic CO2, Biogeosciences, 6, 2509–2523, doi:10.5194/bg625092009, 2009.

Orr, J.C., K. Caldeira, V. Fabry, J.P.  Gattuso, P. Haugan, P.  Lehodey, S. Pantoja, H.O.  P¨ortner, U. Riebesell, T. Trull, M.  Hood, E. Urban, and W. Broadgate. Research Priorities for Ocean Acidification, report from the Second Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World, Monaco, October 69, 2008, convened by SCOR, UNESCOIOC, IAEA, and IGBP, 25 pp., 2009.

Orr, J. C. et al. (other authors as above), Monaco Declaration on ocean acidification, 2009.

Orr, J. C. et al. (other authors as above), Ocean acidification, A summary for policymakers from the Second Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World, 2009.

Orr, J. C. et al. (other authors as above), Ocean research priorities for understanding ocean acidification: summary from the Second Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World, Oceanography, 22, 182–189, 2009.

Orr, J. C. and C. Turley, The ocean in a high-CO2 world, the second symposium on ocean acidification Global Change Newsletter


Davies A. J., M. Wisshak, J. C. Orr, J. M. Roberts Predicting suitable habitat for the coldwater coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia), Deep-Sea Research I, 55, 1048–1062, 2008.

Fabry, V. J., B. A. Seibel, R. A. Feely and J. C. Orr. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes.  ICES J. of Marine Science, 65 (3), 414–432, 2008.

Martin, S., F. Gazeau, J. C. Orr, and J.P.  Gattuso. L’ acidification des océans et ses conséquences Lettre PIGB-PMRC France, 21, 5–16, 2008.

R. Jeffree, S. Martin, T. LacoueLabarthe, F. Houlbreque, F.  Oberh¨ansli, S. Comeau, J. L. Teyssié, F. Boisson, J. P.  Gattuso, and J. C. Orr. Experimental studies of oceanacidification impacts on Mediterranean seafood species, in Impacts of acidification on biological, chemical and physical systems in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. CIESM Monograph 36 (F. Briand, ed.), 124 pp., Monaco.


Caldeira, K., D. Archer, J.P. Barry, R. G. J. Bellerby, P. G.  Brewer, L. Cao, A. G. Dickson, S. C. Doney, H. Elderfield,V.  J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, J.P.  Gattuso, P. M. Haugan, O. HoeghGuldberg, A. K. Jain, J. A. Kleypas, C. Langdon, J. C. Orr, A. Ridgwell, C. L. Sabine, B. A. Seibel, Y. Shirayama, C. Turley, A. J. Watson, and R. E. Zeebe. Comment on ”Modernage buildup of CO2 and its effects on seawater acidity and salinity” by Hugo A. Loaiciga. Geophys. Res.  Lett., 34, L18608, doi:10.1029/2006GL027288, 2007.

Lachkar, Z., J. C. Orr, J.C.  Dutay, and P. Delecluse. Effects of mesoscale eddies on global distributions of CFC-11, CO2, and Δ14C, Ocean Science, 3, 461–482, 2007.

Meehl, G. A., T. F. Stocker, W. Collins, P. Friedlingstein, A.  Gaye, J. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti, J. Murphy, A. Noda, S. Raper, I. Watterson, A. Weaver, Z.C.  Zhao (Contributing authors: J. C. Orr et al). Chapter 10: Global Climate Projections, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of WGI to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge Univ. Press (or http://ipccwg1.  html, 2007.

Najjar, R. G., X. Jin, F. Louanchi, O. Aumont, K. Caldeira, S. C. Doney, J.C.  Dutay, M. Follows, N. Gruber, F. Joos, K. Lindsay, E. MaierReimer, R. J. Matear, K. Matsumoto, P. Monfray, A. Mouchet, J. C. Orr, G. K. Plattner, J. L.  Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, M. F. Weirig, Y. Yamanaka and A.  Yool. Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved oxygen in the ocean: Results from Phase II of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP2), Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB3007, doi:10.1029/2006GB002857, 2007.

Naegler, T., P. Ciais, J. C. Orr, O. Aumont, and C. R¨odenbeck.  On evaluating ocean models with Atmospheric Potential Oxygen. Tellus 59B (1), 138–156, doi:10.1111/j.16000889.2006.00197.  x, 2007.

Orr, J. C., and R. F. C. Mantoura. Using isotopes to understand the oceans and climate change, in Nuclear Technology Review (, IAEA, Vienna, 72–83, 2007., 73, 22–23, 2009.


Raynaud, S., J. C. Orr, O. Aumont, K. Rodgers, and P. Yiou.  Interannualtodecadal variability of North Atlantic airsea CO2 fluxes, Ocean Science, 2, 43–60, 2006.

Guinotte, J. M., J. C. Orr, S. Cairns, A. Freiwald, L. Morgan, and R. George (2005) Climate change and deepsea corals: will chemical and physical changes in the world’s oceans alter the distribution of deep-sea bioherm forming scleractinians?, Front. Ecol. Environ., 4(3), 141146, 2006.

Kleypas, J. A., R. A. Feely, V. J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C. L.  Sabine and L. L. Robbins (Contributing authors: J. C. Orr et al). Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers. A Guide for Future Research, Report of a workshop sponsored by NSF, NOAA and the USGS. 88pp., 2006.


Orr, J. C., V. J. Fabry, O. Aumont, Laurent Bopp, S. C. Doney, R. M. Feely, A. Gnanadesikan, N. Gruber, A. Ishida, F.  Joos, R. M. Key, K. Lindsay, E. MaierReimer, R. Matear, P. Monfray, A. Mouchet, R. G. Najjar, G.K.  Plattner, K. B.  Rodgers, C. L. Sabine, J. L. Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, R. D.  Slater, I. J. Totterdell, M.F.  Weirig, Y. Yamanaka, and A.  Yool. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms, Nature, 437, 681–686 (29 September 2005).

Orr, J. C., S. Pantoja, and H.O.  P¨ortner. Introduction to special section: The Ocean in a High-CO2 World, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C09S01, doi:10.1029/2005JC003086, 2005.

Orr, J. C., O. Aumont, A. Yool, G.K.  Plattner, F. Joos, E.  MaierReimer, M.F.  Weirig, R. Schlitzer, K. Caldeira, M. E.  Wickett, R. J. Matear, B. K. Mignone, J. L. Sarmiento. Narrowing the uncertainty for deepocean injection efficiency, in 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, UK, 2005.


Belviso, S., L. Bopp, C. Moulin, J. C. Orr, T.R. Anderson, S. Chu, S. Elliott, M.E. Maltrud and R. Simo, Comparison of global climatological maps of sea surface dimethylsulfide, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, 3, GB3013, 10.1029/2003GB002193, 2004

Cicerone, R., J. C. Orr, P. Brewer, P. Haugan, L. Merlivat, T.  Ohsumi, S. Pantoja, H.O.  Pörtner, The Ocean in a High-CO2 World, EOS, 85, 37, 2 pp., 2004.

Cicerone, R., J. C. Orr, P. Brewer, P. Haugan, L. Merlivat, T.  Ohsumi, S. Pantoja, H.O.  Pörtner, The Ocean in a High-CO2 World, Oceanography, 17, 3, 7278, 2004.

Doney, S.C., K. Lindsay, K. Caldeira, J.M.  Campin, H.  Drange, J.C.  Dutay, M. Follows, Y. Gao, A. Gnanadesikan, N. Gruber, A. Ishida, F. Joos, G. Madec, E. MaierReimer, J.C. Marshall, R.J. Matear, P. Monfray, R. Najjar, J.C. Orr, G.K.  Plattner, J. Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, R. Slater, I.J. Totterdell, M.F.  Weirig, Y. Yamanaka, and A. Yool, Evaluating global ocean carbon modelsthe importance of realistic physics, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB3017, doi:10.1029/2003GB002150, 2004.

Dutay, J.C., P. JeanBaptiste, J.M.  Campin, A. Ishida, E. MaierReimer, R.J. Matear, A. Mouchet, I.J. Totterdell, Y. Yamanaka, K. Rodgers, G. Madec, J. C. Orr.  Evaluation of OCMIP2 ocean models’ deep circulation with mantle helium-3, J. Mar. Systems, 48, 14, 1536, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2003.05.010, 2004.

Matsumoto, K., J.L.  Sarmiento, R. M. Key, O. Aumont, J.L. Bullister, K. Caldeira, J.M.  Campin, S.C. Doney, H.  Drange, J.C.  Dutay, M. Follows, Y. Gao, A. Gnadadesikan, N. Gruber, A. Ishida, F. Joos, K. Lindsay, E. MaierReimer, J.C. Marshall, R.J. Matear, P. Monfray, R. Najjar, G.K.  Plattner, R. Schlitzer, R. Slater, P.S. Swathi, I.J. Totterdell, M.F. Weirig, Y. Yamanaka, A. Yool, and J.C. Orr, CFC and radiocarbon constraints on model simulated uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, LO7303, doi :10.1029/2003GL018970, 2004.

Orr, J. C., Modelling of ocean storage of CO2—The GOSAC study, Report, PH4/37, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, 96 pp., 2004.

Rodgers, K. B., O. Aumont, G. Madec, C. Menkes, B. Blanke, P. Monfray, J. C. Orr, and D. P. Schrag, Radiocarbon as a thermocline proxy for the eastern equatorial Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L14314, doi:10.1029/2004GL019764, 2004.


Le Quéré, C., O. Aumont, P. Monfray, and J. C.  Orr, Propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2: Case studies over the 1979–1999 period, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C12), 3375, doi:10.1029/2001JC000920, 2003.

Orr, J. C., O. Aumont, A. Yool, G.K.  Plattner, F. Joos, E.  Maier-Reimer, M.F.  Weirig, R. Schlitzer, K. Caldeira, M.  Wickett, R. Matear, B. Mignone, J. Sarmiento, J. Davison, The GOSAC project to predict the efficiency of ocean CO2 sequestration using 3D ocean models, in Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies–6th International Conference, eds. J.  Gale and Y. Kaya, Pergamon, 2003.

Watson, A. J. and J. C. Orr. Carbon dioxide fluxes in the global ocean Chapter 5 in Ocean Biogeochemistry: the Role of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Global Change (a JGOFS Synthesis), eds. M. Fasham, J. Field, T. Platt, and B. Zeitzschel, Springer, Berlin, pp. 123–141, 2003.


Dutay, J.C., J. Bullister, S. C. Doney, J. C. Orr, R. G. Najjar, K. Caldeira, J.M.  Campin, H. Drange, M. Follows, Y. Gao, N. Gruber, M.W. Hecht, A. Ishida, F. Joos, K. Lindsay, G. Madec, E. MaierReimer, J. C. Marshall, R. Matear, P. Monfray, G. K. Plattner, J. L. Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, R. D. Slater, I. J. Totterdell, M.F.  Weirig, Y. Yamanaka, and A. Yool, Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: Comparison of 13 global ocean models, Ocean Modelling, 4(2), 89–120, 2002.

Prentice, C., G. Farquhar, M. Fasham, M. Goulden, M.  Heimann,V. Jaramillo, H. Kheshgi, C. Le Quéré, R. Scholes, and D. Wallace (Contributing authors: J.C. Orr et al). The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2, in Climate Change:The Scientific Basis, the (contribution of IPCC WGI to the IPCC Third Assessment Report TAR), eds. J. Houghton and D.  Yihui, Cambridge University Press, pp. 183237, 2002.


Aumont, O., J. C. Orr, P. Monfray, W. Ludwig, P. AmiotteSuchet, and J.L.  Probst, Riverinedriven interhemispheric transport of carbon, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 393– 405, 2001.

Bopp, L., P. Monfray, O. Aumont, J.L.  Dufresne, H. LeTreut, G. Madec, L. Terray, and J. C. Orr, Potential impact of climate change of marine export production, Global Biogeochem.  Cycles, 15, 81–99, 2001.

Friedlingstein, P., L. Bopp, P. Ciais, J.L.  Dufresne, L. Fairhead, H. LeTreut, P. Monfray, and J. C. Orr, Positive feeedback of the carbon cycle on future climate change, Geophys.  Res. Lett., 28, 1543–1546, 2001.

Jean-Baptiste, P., P. Ciais, Orr, J. C., and R. Ducroux, Séquestration du CO2 : Faisabilité et Coût CEA Report CEAR5989, DSM, CEA Saclay, France 70, 2001

Orr, J. C., OCMIP evaluation of deep-ocean circulation, Research GAIM, 2, 5, 2001.

Orr, J. C., O. Aumont, A. Yool, K. Plattner, F. Joos, E. MaierReimer, M.F.  Weirig, R. Schlitzer, K. Caldeira, M.Wickett, and R. Matear, Ocean CO2 sequestration efficiency from 3-D ocean model comparison,, in Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (Proceedings of the 5th Inter. Conf. on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies), edited by D. Williams, B. Durie, P. McMullan, C. Paulson, and A. Smith, CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia, pp. 469–474, 2001.

Orr, J. C., P. Monfray, E. MaierReimer, U. Mikolajewicz, J. Palmer, N. K. Taylor, J. R. Toggweiler, J. L. Sarmiento, C. L. Quéré, N. Gruber, C. L. Sabine, R. M. Key, and J. Boutin, Estimates of anthropogenic carbon uptake from four three-dimensionsal global ocean models, Global Biogeochem.  Cycles, 15, 43–60, 2001.


Le Quéré, C., J. C. Orr, P. Monfray, O. Aumont, and G. Madec, Interannual variability of the oceanic sink of CO2 from 1979 to 1997, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 1247–1265, 2000.

Orr, J. C., Global Ocean Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon, Proceedings from European Climate Science Conference (CDROM), Vienna, European Commission, CDROM, 8 pp., 2000.

Sarmiento, J. L., P. Monfray, E. MaierReimer, O. Aumont, R. Murnane, and J. C. Orr, Sea-air CO2 fluxes and carbon transport: A comparison of three ocean general circulation models, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 1267–1281, 2000.

Taylor, J. A., and J. C. Orr, The natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 26, 375– 386, 2000.


Aumont, O., J. Orr, P. Monfray, G. Madec, and E. MaierReimer, Nutrient trapping in the equatorial Pacific: the ocean circulation solution, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 351– 370, 1999.

Aumont, O., and J. C. Orr, Injection-HOWTO.  Internal OCMIP Report, LSCE/CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 17 pp., 1999.

Leboucher, V., J. C. Orr, P. JeanBaptiste, P. Monfray, N. TisneratLaborde, A. Poisson, and J. C. Duplessy, Oceanic radiocarbon between Antarctica and South Africa along WOCE section I6 at 30oE, Radiocarbon, 41, 51–73, 1999.

Najjar, R., and J. C. Orr, BioticHOWTO.  Internal OCMIP Report, LSCE/CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 15 pp., 1999.

Orr, J. C., Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP): Phase 1 (1995-1997), GAIM Rep. 7, IGBP/GAIM Office, EOS, Univ. New Hampshire, Durham, 1999a.

Orr, J. C., On ocean carbon-cycle model comparison, Tellus, 51B, 509–510, 1999b.

Orr, J. C., Ocean circulation and the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project, Int. WOCE Newsletter, 35, 24–25, 1999c.

Orr, J. C., Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP), Research GAIM, 2, 7, 1999d.

Orr, J. C., and O. Aumont, Exploring the capacity of the ocean to retain artificially sequestered CO2, in Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, edited by B. Eliasson, P. Reimer, and A. Wokaun, pp. 281–286, Elsevier Science Ltd., 1999.

Orr, J. C., and J.C.  Dutay, OCMIP mid-project workshop, Research GAIM, 3, 4–5, 1999.

Orr, J. C., J.C.  Dutay, R. Najjar, J. Bullister, and P. Brockmann, CFCHOWTO.  Internal OCMIP Report, LSCE/CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 12 pp., 1999a.

Orr, J. C., R. Najjar, C. L. Sabine, and F. Joos, AbioticHOWTO.  Internal OCMIP Report, LSCE/CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 25 pp., 1999b.


Orr, J. C., and R. G. Najjar, OCMIP2 in progress, Research GAIM, 2, 9, 1998.

Aumont, O., J. C. Orr, D. Jamous, P. Monfray, O. Marti, and G. Madec, A degradation approach to accelerate simulations to steady state in a 3-D tracer transport model of the global ocean, Clim. Dyn., 14, 101–116, 1998.


Joos, F., J. C. Orr, U. Siegenthaler, Ocean carbon transport in a box-diffusion vs. a general circulation model, J. Geophys.  Res., 102, 12367–12388, 1997.

Orr, J. C., Ocean carbon-cycle models: exploring the differences, Research GAIM, 1, 8–10, 1997.

Orr, J. C., P. Monfray, J. L. Sarmiento, E. MaierReimer, J. R.  Palmer, and R. G. Najjar, Transition time for ocean carbon-cycle model comparison, Research GAIM, 1, 8–10, 1997.


Orr, J. C., The Ocean Carbon-Cycle Intercomparison Project of IGBP/GAIM, in Ocean Storage of Carbon Dioxide, ed.  B. Ormerod, IEA Greenhouse R&D Programme,Workshop 3 – International Links and Concerns, pp. 33–52, ISBN 1 898373 04 3, CRE Group Ltd., Cheltenham GL52 4RZ, UK, 1996.


Toggweiler, J. R., and J. C. Orr, Summary ofWorkshop on Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Ocean, in The Global Carbon Cycle, ed. M. Heimann,NATOASI Series, I15, pp. 585-586, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993.

Orr, J. C., Accord of Ocean Models in Predicting Uptake of Anthropogenic CO2, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 70, 465481, 1993.

Downing, J. P., M. Meybeck, J. C. Orr, R. R. Twilley, and H.W. Scharpenseel, Land andWater Interface Zones,Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 70, 123137, 1993.

Baskaran, M., D. J. Murphy, P. H. Santschi, J. C. Orr, and D. R. Schink, A method for Rapid In Situ Extraction and Laboratory Determination of Th, Pb, and Ra Isotopes from Large Volumes of Seawater, Deep-Sea Res., 40, 849–865, 1993.


Orr, J. C., Carbon dioxide disposal: the deep-six fix again, Nature, 357, 283–284, 1992.

Orr, J. C. and J. L. Sarmiento, Potential of marine macroalgae as a sink for CO2: constraints from a 3D general circulation model, Water, Air, & Soil Poll., 64, 405–421, 1992.

Sarmiento, J. L., J. C. Orr, and U. Siegenthaler, A perturbation simulation of CO2 uptake in an ocean general circulation model, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3621–3645, 1992.


Sarmiento, J. L., and J. C. Orr, Three dimensional ocean model simulations of impact of southern ocean nutrient depletion on atmospheric CO2 and ocean chemistry, Limnol.  Oceanogr., 36, 1928–1950, 1991.

Sarmiento, J. L., and J. C. Orr, The iron fertilization strategy, Proceedings of the Conference Oceans, Climate, Man, Fondazione, San Paolo di Torino, Italy, 1991.


Talley, L. D., M. Tsuchiya and J. C. Orr, 1990. Cruise report, in Hydros Leg 4 (SAVE Leg 6), Shipboard Chemical and Physical Data Report, Preliminary, 13 March 19 April 1989, R/V Melville, by the Oceanographic Data Facility, ODF Publication No. 229


Orr, J. C., 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra as tracers for the evolution of warm core rings, Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX, 339 pp., 1988a.

Orr, J. C., Evaluation of counting methods for oceanic Ra-228, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 8265–8278, 1988b.


Orr, J. C., N. L. Guinasso Jr., and D. R. Schink, Radon surpluses in warm core rings, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 8903–8916, 1985.


Orr, J.C., N.L. Guinasso Jr., & D.R. Schink, Device for in situ extraction of tracers from large volumes of seawater, Tech.  Rep., 84T1, Dept. Oceanogr., Texas A&M Univ., 60 pp., 1984.

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