Figure: Vale da Pedra Furada, stratigraphic profile and synthetic stratigraphic interpretation. The green star marks the exact position of artefact here analysed within C7γa layer. (�) OSL date corresponding to C10 in a different sector than the rest of the stratigraphic profile. Artefacts are out of scale.
Current archaeological paradigm proposes that the first peopling of the Americas does not exceed the Last Glacial Maximum period. In this context, the acceptance of the anthropogenic character of the earliest stone artefacts generally rests on the presence of projectile points considered no more as typocentric but as typognomonic, since it allows, by itself, to certify the human character of the other associated artefacts. In other words, without this presence, nothing is certain. Archaeological research at Piauí (Brazil) attests to a Pleistocene human presence between 41 and 14 cal kBP, without any record of lithic projectile points. Here, we report the discovery and interpretation of an unusual stone artefact in the Vale da Pedra Furada site, in a context dating back to 24 cal kBP. The knapping stigmata and macroscopic use-wear traces reveal a conception centered on the configuration of double bevels and the production in the same specimen of at least two successive artefacts with probably different functions. This piece unambiguously presents an anthropic character and reveals a technical novelty during the Pleistocene occupation of South America.
Eric Boëda, Marcos Ramos, Antonio Pérez, Christine Hatté, Christelle Lahaye, Mario Pino, David Hérisson, Ignacio Clemente-Conte, Michel Fontugne, Guillaume Guérin, Ximena Villagran, Janaina C. Santos, Lucas Costa, Lucie Germond, Nelson Eric Ahmed-Delacroix, Amelie Da Costa, Carolina Borges, Sirley Hoeltz, Gisele Felice, María Gluchy, Grégoire van Havre, Christophe Griggo, Livia Lucas, Iderlan de Souza, Sibeli Viana, André Strauss, Jennifer Kerner, Niède Guidon, 2021. 24.0 kyr cal BP stone artefact from Vale da Pedra Furada, Piauí, Brazil: Techno-functional analysis. PlosOne, 16 (3): e0247965– doi: 10.1371/journalpone.0247965